The “Sponge” Of Graphene, More Resistant Than Steel

Nanotechnology is a field of research that has functional structures, i.e. objects, machines, which have dimensions between 1 and 1,000 nanometers: they are outside normal human experiences. In recent years, tools have been developed to manufacture such objects by manipulating matter at an atomic level, and research has literally exploded, both for the charm, even intellectual, of being able to build structures and molecules one atom at a time, and because it is

NANOTECHNOLOGIES There are three main branches of development and application of this new science: wet, dry and computational.

Wet, wet: it concerns biological systems that develop in a humid environment. The functions of living organisms are regulated by the interaction of biological structures on a nanometric scale, such as genetic material, membranes, enzymes and other components of cells. The development of knowledge and technology to manipulate these biological structures is the scope of “wet nanotechnology.”

Dry, dry. It comes from physics and chemistry: the field of study includes carbon structures (such as nanotubes), silicon and other inorganic materials. It has applications in electronic, magnetic and optical fields, but one of the most ambitious goals of “dry” nanotechnology is to create inorganic structures capable of developing autonomously, such as organic ones.

Computational, computer science. It aims to develop systems for the design and simulation of the behaviour of complex nanometric structures. The ability to have reliable forecast models is indispensable, and not only because of the size of the designed structures (which cannot be tested in a traditional way): nature has taken millions of years to develop its successful “biological structures,” while we, in a few decades, can That could have a greater impact on life than natural ones. [I.Z.]

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